corporate governance standards, board structure, code of best practice, financial crisis, corporate scandals, market manipulation, internal audit


The paper concentrates on several comparative standards in Europe, so-called a limited European set of standards on corporate governance. First, it looks at some groups of findings on corporate governance subjects in the post-crisis period. It found out that companies in these periods need to oversight their legal or compliance activities, besides suitable policies. Second, it identified different points in latest corporate governance standard principles and systems in five (5) countries in European region: Germany, The UK, Denmark, Sweden and France. Third, this paper provide with a summary of evaluation of current corporate governance systems in these above countries which may enable relevant organizations in re-evaluating their current ones. Last but not least, it aims to illustrate a limited comparative set of standards of European corporate governance, so-called backbone, and give proper recommendations to relevant governments and institutions.