scale development, measurement procedure, reliability, validity, entrepreneurship, construct


To develop a measurement scale that would lead to valid and reliable results is a tasking goal in any research field. We build from theoretical findings that are advanced in the measurement and scale development theory to review the type of measures used and scale development procedures of measures reported in top-tier entrepreneurship journals during the years 2009 and 2010. The in-depth review showed that not all steps in scale development in entrepreneurship research are always accomplished although every step is crucial when aiming for a sound measure. Additionally, the study showed that all too often measures, that have not been validated, are being used. Thus, this review serves as a reference for researchers to apply methodologically rigorous procedures for scale development in entrepreneurship research and to use previously validated scales. With this in mind, we propose hands on guidelines for scale development in entrepreneurship research in the Appendix of the paper.