team innovation, ability-motivation-opportunity theory, collective efficacy


Based on ability–motivation–opportunity theoretical framework, the study explores the interplay among team members’ proactive personalities (abilities), collective efficacy (motivation), and supportive supervision (opportunity), and their interaction in predicting team innovation. Multi-level study of 249 employees nested within 64 teams from one German and three Slovenian hi-tech companies showed that collective efficacy was positively related to team innovation. However, the effect of collective efficacy on team innovation was weaker when high levels of supportive supervision and proactivity moderated this relationship. When teams perceived lower levels of collective efficacy, team proactivity, and supportive supervision were more important for achieving higher levels of team innovation as they were when teams perceived lower levels of motivation. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.